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Why the Perfect Being Theologian Cannot Endorse the Principle of Alternative Possibilities

Samuel Director


I argue that perfect being theologians cannot endorse the Principle of Alternative Possibilities (AP). On perfect being theology, God is essentially morally perfect, meaning that He always acts in a morally perfect manner. I argue that it is possible that God is faced with a situation in which there is only one morally perfect action, which He must do. If this is true, then God acts without alternative possibilities in this situation. Yet, unless one says that this choice is not free, one must say that God has acted freely without alternative possibilities.


Perfect Being Theology; Anselm; PAP; Freedom; Compatibilism

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